The courir de Mardi Gras (literally to “run” Mardi Gras) is a rural and lesser-known Cajun counterpart to urban celebrations of Fat Tuesday in such cities as New Orleans and Lafayette. For the courir, disguised revelers convene before dawn at a predetermined locale, typically a participant’s farmstead. They form a costumed band that travels either on horseback or by tractor-drawn trailers throughout a rural community, calling on neighbors, relatives, and friends. Playing the dual role of a jester and beggar, the revelers sing, dance, and perform comic antics in exchange for “a little fat chicken,” guinea hens, rice, sausage, onions, or lard—all ingredients for a communal gumbo that is served later that evening. Fowl are generally donated alive, requiring revelers to chase and capture chickens and guinea hens. The tradition functions as a ritualistic means of creating, sustaining, and defining the boundaries of rural communities in southern Louisiana.
Rural and Urban Mardi Gras Traditions
Though very different in appearance, the courir de Mardi Gras and the festivities in New Orleans share the same historical antecedent. Two days before Lent in 1699, French Canadian explorer Pierre Le Moyne d’Iberville brought this Latin festival to the American Gulf Coast when his naval expedition disembarked at the mouth of the Mississippi River. The francophones in Iberville’s command made camp at a location that the commandant christened “Pointe du Mardi Gras” (Mardi Gras Point).
While the historical details of Mardi Gras in colonial Louisiana are hazy, oral histories led anthropologist Rocky Sexton and musicologist Harry Oster to conclude that “Mardi Gras and Mardi Gras songs were a long-standing tradition by the mid-nineteenth century.” By the century’s end, Louisiana boasted at least two distinct variants of Mardi Gras. In urban areas, particularly New Orleans, the Creole and Anglo American elite organized parades and balls, while working-class Cajun communities in Louisiana’s southwestern prairies celebrated the rural courir.
The courir celebration was dominated by men until World War II interrupted Mardi Gras runs in rural Louisiana. When the war ended, many communities were slow to reinstitute local festivals. Community activists such as Paul Tate, however, worked to revive the tradition in Mamou and other communities. During the 1950s, loosely organized bands of masked women also began to roam the countryside in Pointe Noire, Eunice, Duralde, Basile, and Tee Mamou, paralleling their male counterparts—perhaps an indirect consequence of women having entered the workforce in World War II.
Though there are approximately thirty versions of the courir de Mardi Gras, the celebrations can be distinguished by the participants’ method of travel. While some runners travel on horseback, others ride on tractor-drawn wagons, and a few use a combination of horses and wagons. There are all-male, all-female, mixed gender, and—most recently—all-children runs. The use of whips constitutes perhaps the most striking difference among the revelers. In whipping celebrations such as those in Tee Mamou, l’Anse LeJeune, and Hathaway, captains wield thick, braided burlap whips to keep order. Scholars believe the whipping ritual descends from a pre-Christian festival known as Lupercalia, in which participants would run past bystanders, whipping them with a goat skin thong as a fertility demonstration. In some courirs, revelers willingly endure the whippings, which are not violent in nature. In others, part of the tradition includes attempts by the runners to take the whip away from the captain.
Both all-female and all-male runs are led by unmasked male capitaines. The men often wear a cowboy hat or baseball cap while carrying flags symbolizing their authority. Capitaines act as mediators between the Mardi Gras runners and the community. In exchange for providing entertainment for the community, they procure ingredients for the gumbo. Moreover, it is the capitaine’s responsibility to assure homeowners that the revelers will not steal from them or damage their property.
Courir de Mardi Gras Costumes
Costumes vary widely from community to community in accordance with local customs. Some participants chose to wear mortar boards, bishop’s miters, or commercially made Halloween masks depicting everything from monsters to US presidents. Capuchons, or conical hats, are among the most prevalent Mardi Gras regalia. Communities such as Tee Mamou insist that runners wear handmade screen or needlepoint masks in addition to capuchons, thus creating a niche market for mask makers such as Suson Launey, Renée Frugé Douget, Allen and Georgie Manuel and Jackie Miller. Collectively, these women have made hundreds of masks and colorful costumes from hand-sewn remnants. Often, various grotesque features are added to the masks; stuffed hosiery, for example, is sometimes used to create an absurdly long nose or exaggerated lips.
In some communities, specialized characters called the nègre and nègresse paint their faces black in lieu of masks. Often portrayed by the same individuals every year, these two characters act as unofficial captains while performing in blackface like end men from a minstrel show. This tradition not only has stirred debate about the racial politics of the nègre and nègresse but also has created tension between communities and ethnographers. In Afro-Creole communities, people of color have also donned whiteface. The practice is thought to be a manifestation of the traditional Mardi Gras masking custom of assuming an opposite or markedly different identity for the holiday.
Mardi Gras Songs
Singing is another important component of the rural Mardi Gras celebration, and two basic variants are found in celebrations across Acadiana. The first type—lyrics sung with instrumental arrangement—is organized with a minor modal chord progression. These songs describe the characteristics and purpose of the Mardi Gras run: “We get together once a year, to ask for charity/Even if it is just a skinny chicken, or three or four ears of corn.” The song concludes with an invitation to “join us for gumbo later tonight.” A number of Cajun musicians—including the Balfa Brothers and Nathan Abshire—have recorded different versions of this composition. The second song variant is a French drinking song that is performed a cappella as revelers approach a home. In the Tee Mamou Mardi Gras, for instance, approximately ten people line up shoulder to shoulder over several rows and sing the song while slowly creeping toward their neighbor. This particular variant describes a dwindling bottle of alcohol.
Most of the participants hail from within the community that sustains the festival, though outsiders have increasingly begun to participate. Outside interest and sustained local engagement have perpetuated the courir de Mardi Gras. Its longevity and vitality has surpassed similar French North American traditions, such as la Guignolée, a New Year’s Eve rite of singing a French begging song door to door (still observed in the French settlements of Prairie du Rocher, Illinois, and Ste. Genevieve, Missouri) and charivari, a folk custom that often involved yelling, singing, and banging pots and pans at the home of a newlywed couple.Author: Ryan Brasseaux
Cite this entry
Chicago Manual of Style
"Courir de Mardi Gras." In knowlouisiana.org Encyclopedia of Louisiana, edited by David Johnson. Louisiana Endowment for the Humanities, 2010–. Article published February 1, 2016. http://www.knowlouisiana.org/entry/courir-de-mardi-gras.
"Courir de Mardi Gras" knowlouisiana.org Encyclopedia of Louisiana. Ed. David Johnson. Louisiana Endowment for the Humanities, 1 Feb 2016. Web. 20 Nov 2017.
Ancelet, Barry Jean, and James Edmunds. “Capitaine, Voyage Ton Flag”: The Traditional Cajun Country Mardi Gras. Lafayette: Center for Louisiana Studies, University of Southwestern Louisiana, 1989.
Ancelet, Barry Jean, Jay Dearborn Edwards, Glen Pitre, et al. Cajun Country. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1991.
Lindahl, Carl. “Bakhtin’s Carnival Laughter and the Cajun Country Mardi Gras.” Folklore 107 (1996): 57–70.
———. “The Presence of the Past in the Cajun Country Mardi Gras.” Journal of Folklore Research 33, no. 2 (May–August 1996): 125–53.
Lindahl, Carl, and Carolyn Ware. Cajun Mardi Gras Masks. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1997.
Mire, Pat. Dance for a Chicken: The Cajun Mardi Gras. Eunice, LA: Attakapas Productions, 1993. Videocassette (VHS), 57 min.
Oster, Harry. “Folk Celebration: Country Mardi Gras,” In Buying the Wind: Regional Folklore in the United States, edited by Richard M. Dorson. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964: 274–81.
Sexton, Rocky L. “Ritualized Inebriation, Violence, and Social Control in Cajun Mardi Gras.” Anthropological Quarterly 74, no. 1 (January 2001): 28–38.
———. “Cajun Mardi Gras: Cultural Objectification and Symbolic Appropriation in a French Tradition.” Ethnology 38, no. 4 (Autumn 1999): 297–313.
Special Issue, Southwestern Louisiana Mardi Gras. Journal of American Folklore 114, no. 452 (Spring 2001).
Ware, Carolyn E. Cajun Women and Mardi Gras: Reading the Rules Backwards. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2007.
———. “Marketing Mardi Gras: Heritage Tourism in Rural Acadiana.” Western Folklore 62, no. 3 (Summer 2003): 157–87.
Disclaimer » If you click on any of the links below, you will leave knowlouisiana.org. The Louisiana Endowment for the Humanities does not certify the accuracy of information, nor endorse points of view expressed on the site to which you are navigating, with the exception of other LEH sites.//php the_field('teaser'); ?>